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Researchers have reported cases of vitamin B 12 deficiency in lactating vegetarian mothers that were linked to deficiencies and neurological disorders in their children. Vegan diets have attracted negative attention from the media because of cases of nutritional deficiencies that have come to the attention of the courts, including the death of a baby in New Zealand in due to hypocobalaminemia , i.

Vegans replace personal care products and household cleaners containing animal products with products that are vegan, such as vegan dental floss made of bamboo fiber. Animal ingredients are ubiquitous because they are relatively inexpensive. After animals are slaughtered for meat, the leftovers are put through a rendering process and some of that material, particularly the fat, is used in toiletries. Common animal-derived ingredients include: tallow in soap; collagen -derived glycerine , which used as a lubricant and humectant in many haircare products, moisturizers, shaving foams, soaps and toothpastes; [] lanolin from sheep's wool is often found in lip balm and moisturizers; stearic acid is a common ingredient in face creams, shaving foam and shampoos, as with glycerine, it can be plant-based, but is usually animal-derived ; Lactic acid , an alpha-hydroxy acid derived from animal milk, is used in moisturizers; allantoin — from the comfrey plant or cows' urine —is found in shampoos, moisturizers and toothpaste; [] and carmine from scale insects , such as the female cochineal , is used in food and cosmetics to produce red and pink shades; [] [].

PETA bunny : certified vegan, no animal testing. The British Vegan Society's sunflower logo and PETA's bunny logo mean the product is certified vegan, which includes no animal testing. The Leaping Bunny logo signals no animal testing, but it might not be vegan.


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Beauty Without Cruelty , founded as a charity in , was one of the earliest manufacturers and certifiers of animal-free personal care products. Vegans avoid clothing that incorporates silk, wool including lambswool , shearling , cashmere , angora , mohair , and a number of other fine wools , fur, feathers, pearls, animal-derived dyes, leather, snakeskin, and any other kind of skin or animal product.

Most leather clothing is made from cow skins. Vegans regard the purchase of leather, particularly from cows, as financial support for the meat industry. Ethical veganism, also known as moral vegetarianism, is based on opposition to speciesism , the assignment of value to individuals on the basis of species membership alone.

Divisions within animal rights theory include the utilitarian , protectionist approach, which pursues improved conditions for animals. It also pertains to the rights-based abolitionism , which seeks to end human ownership of non-humans. Abolitionists argue that protectionism serves only to make the public feel that animal use can be morally unproblematic the "happy meat" position.

Law professor Gary Francione , an abolitionist, argues that all sentient beings should have the right not to be treated as property, and that adopting veganism must be the baseline for anyone who believes that non-humans have intrinsic moral value. The right of subjects-of-a-life not to be harmed can be overridden by other moral principles, but Regan argues that pleasure, convenience and the economic interests of farmers are not weighty enough.

An argument proposed by Bruce Friedrich , also a protectionist, holds that strict adherence to veganism harms animals, because it focuses on personal purity, rather than encouraging people to give up whatever animal products they can.

Vegetarians and Vegans in America Today (American Subcultures)

By failing to ask a server whether something contains animal products, we reinforce that the moral rights of animals are a matter of convenience, he argues. He concludes from this that the protectionist position fails on its own consequentialist terms. Ethical vegans want to admit non-humans into the category that deserves special protection, rather than recognize the "ecological embeddedness" of all.


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Or, as Farlie puts it, with characteristic panache : 'to conclude that veganism is the "only ethical response" is to take a big leap into a very muddy pond'. David Pearce , a transhumanist philosopher, has argued that humanity has a "hedonistic imperative" to not merely avoid cruelty to animals or abolish the ownership of non-human animals, but also to redesign the global ecosystem such that wild animal suffering ceases to exist.

Fertility regulation could maintain herbivore populations at sustainable levels, "a more civilised and compassionate policy option than famine, predation, and disease". A growing political philosophy that incorporates veganism as part of its revolutionary praxis is veganarchism , which seeks "total abolition" or " total liberation " for all animals, including humans.

Veganarchists identify the state as unnecessary and harmful to animals, both human and non-human, and advocate for the adoption of a vegan lifestyle within a stateless society. The term was popularized in with Brian A. Dominick's pamphlet Animal Liberation and Social Revolution , described as "a vegan perspective on anarchism or an anarchist perspective on veganism".

Steven Best , animal rights activist and professor of philosophy at the University of Texas at El Paso , is an advocate of this approach, and has been critical of vegan activists like Francione for supporting animal liberation, but not total liberation, which would include not only opposition to "the property status of animals", but also "a serious critique of capitalism, the state, property relations, and commodification dynamics in general.

Some vegans also embrace the philosophy of anti-natalism , as they see the two as complementary in terms of "harm reduction" to animals and the environment. Environmental vegans focus on conservation , rejecting the use of animal products on the premise that fishing, hunting, trapping and farming, particularly factory farming , are environmentally unsustainable. In , Paul Watson of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society called pigs and chicken "major aquatic predators", because livestock eat 40 percent of the fish that are caught.

This specific form of veganism focuses its way of living on how to have a sustainable way of life without consuming animals. A UN report, Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production , argued that animal products "in general require more resources and cause higher emissions than plant-based alternatives". One of the leading activists and scholars of feminist animal rights is Carol J. Her premier work, The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory , sparked what was to become a movement in animal rights as she noted the relationship between feminism and meat consumption.

Since the release of The Sexual Politics of Meat , Adams has published several other works including essays, books, and keynote addresses. In one of her speeches, "Why feminist-vegan now? Other authors have also paralleled Adams' ideas while expanding on them. Angella Duvnjak states in "Joining the Dots: Some Reflections on Feminist-Vegan Political Practice and Choice" that she was met with opposition to the connection of feminist and veganism ideals, although the connection seemed more than obvious to her and other scholars Some of the main concepts of feminist veganism is that is the connection between the violence and oppression of animals.

For example, Marjorie Spiegal compares the consumption or servitude of animals for human gain to slavery. This capitalist use of animals for personal gain has held strong, despite the work of animal rights activists and ecofriendly feminists. Similar notions that suggest animals—like fish, for example—feel less pain are brought forth today as a justification for animal cruelty. Another connection between feminism and veganism is the parallel of violence against women or other minority members and the violence against animals.

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Animal rights activists closely relates animal cruelty to feminist issues. This connection is even further mirrored as animals that are used for breeding practices are compared to human trafficking victims and migrant sex workers. Another way that feminist veganism relates to feminist thoughts is through the capitalist means of the production itself. Carol J.

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Adams mentions Barbara Noske talking about "meat eating as the ultimate capitalist product, because it takes so much to make the product, it uses up so many resources". Streams within a number of religious traditions encourage veganism, sometimes on ethical or environmental grounds. Scholars have especially noted the growth in the twenty-first century of Jewish veganism [] and Jain veganism. Multiple symbols have been developed to represent veganism. Several are used on consumer packaging , including the Vegan Society trademark [] and Vegan Action logo, [] to indicate products without animal-derived ingredients.

Gary Francione "Animal Welfare, Happy Meat and Veganism as the Moral Baseline", : "Ethical veganism is the personal rejection of the commodity status of nonhuman animals Vegetarian and vegan diets may be referred to as plant-based and vegan diets as entirely plant-based. This terminology is controversial within the vegan community. While some vegan leaders, such as Karen Dawn , endorse efforts to avoid animal consumption for any reason; others, including Francione, believe that veganism must be part of an holistic ethical and political movement in order to support animal liberation.

Accordingly, the latter group rejects the label "dietary vegan", referring instead to "strict vegetarians", "pure vegetarians", or followers of a "plant-based" diet. Another early use was by the editor of The Healthian , a journal published by Alcott House , in April "To tell a man, who is in the stocks for a given fault, that he cannot be so confined for such an offence, is ridiculous enough; but not more so than to tell a healthy vegetarian that his diet is very uncongenial with the wants of his nature, and contrary to reason.

National Institutes of Health , "In the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, bone fracture risk was similar in meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, but higher in vegans, likely due to their lower mean calcium intake. Daniel A. Ornish, from 21 ; Campbell, 41 ; Esselstyn, 57 ; Barnard, 73 ; Greger, American Dietetic Association Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

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Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 12 March Cohen, Tova 21 July Tel Aviv. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 4 March A study prepared for the Globes newspaper and Israel's Channel Two found 5 percent of Israelis identify as vegan and 8 percent as vegetarian while 13 percent are weighing going vegan or vegetarian. In just 2. Cheslow, Daniella 10 December The Salt. The Israeli military, it turns out, was surprisingly eager to help. A military spokesman tells The Salt that vegans serve in all capacities, including as combat soldiers.

Vegan soldiers wear wool-free berets and leather-free boots, and they get an additional stipend to supplement their food, the military says. Joel Fuhrman, D. Martin T. Croft, et al. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vegan disambiguation. For notable vegans, see List of vegans. Clockwise from top-left: Seitan pizza; roasted sprouts , tofu , and pasta; cocoa—avocado brownies ; leek-and-bean cassoulet with dumplings. Further information: History of vegetarianism. Further information: Vegetarian Society.

External images. The Vegan News first edition, Donald Watson front row, fourth left, [78]. See also: s in food and List of vegans. Further information: Rendering food processing. Further information: Vegan nutrition and Plant-based diet.

Further information: Egg substitutes. Main article: Raw veganism.

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Further information: Protein quality , Pea protein , Protein nutrient , Protein—energy malnutrition , Rice protein , Soy protein , and Hemp protein. Further information: Calcium in biology , Calcium carbonate , Calcium citrate , and Disorders of calcium metabolism. Further information: Human iron metabolism , Iron supplement , and Iron deficiency. Further information: Essential fatty acid interactions , Iodine in biology , and Iodine deficiency. Further information: Nutrition and pregnancy.

Further information: Testing cosmetics on animals. Vegan Society sunflower : certified vegan, no animal testing PETA bunny : certified vegan, no animal testing Leaping bunny : no animal testing, might not be vegan. Further information: Environmental vegetarianism , Environmental impact of meat production , and Vegan organic gardening. See also: Vegetarian ecofeminism. Further information: Religion and vegetarianism. Main article: Vegetarian and vegan symbolism.